OUR ONLINE STORE IS COMING VERY SOON!!
COMING SOON 🙂
Eric Sligh – Author / Master Grower, Outdoor
Kyle Kushman – Author / Master Grower, Indoor
Steve Tuck – Veteran U.S. Army – http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=351456618890&v=wall
Mr. Richard Cowan has decades of experience in a wide variety of business ventures. He has served on the board of a number of companies, both public and private, and is currently the chief financial officer and one of the directors of Cannabis Science Inc., (OTCBB:CBIS), a pioneering U.S. biotech company that is focused on developing pharmaceutical cannabis products.
Mr. Cowan is widely known for his published writing and political activism. However, his political past is not what most people expect. Mr. Cowan was president of the Yale Young Republicans, chairman of the Party of the Right in the Yale Political Union and he was a founding member of Young Americans for Freedom.
In December 1972, the National Review published Mr. Cowan’s article titled “Why Conservatives Should Support the Legalization of Marijuana.” This caused quite stir. In his book Smoke and Mirrors, Dan Baum said that this article “opened a second front in the war on drugs.” Time magazine even carried a story about the article.
In December 1986, the National Review published Mr. Cowan’s article titled “How the Narcs Created Crack.” This feature article has been cited in various scholarly journals as the origin of the economics of contraband, including “The Iron Law of Prohibition: the harder the enforcement, the harder the drugs.”
From August 1992 to August 1995, Mr. Cowan was the national director of NORML, The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. In 2000, Mr. Cowan did one of the earliest experiments with live video on Pot-TV.net, The 420 MarijuanaNews. It continued as a prerecorded streaming VBlog until 2005.
Mr. Cowan’s written word has appeared in a variety of newspapers and other publications, including the Atlantic Monthly. He has also made many television appearances, including interviews on numerous news programs, like CNN, and a variety of talk shows.
Mr. Cowan received a bachelor of arts in economics from Yale University in 1962.
Since 1997 Cowan has also published MarijuanaNews.com, one of the earliest “blogs”.
Rev. Dr. Douglas E. Van Dyke, D.D. – Master Grower / Cultivator
Rev. Van Dykes humble beginnings, and life long spiritual walk have led him to an unusual place. He grew up in Bakersfield, CA, where he worked as a Corp. Executive in the automobile industry. After a 15 year career, working at Van Wyk’s Inc., LLC, Rev. Van Dyke developed crippling headaches, diagnosed as chronic persistent cluster headaches, in combination with chronic persistent tension headaches. After three years of suffering, Rev. Van Dyke begun a search to resolve pain. After seeing a variety of specialists in many fields, both conventional and holistic, there didn’t seem to be an acceptable answer, other than taking a cornucopia of Pharm. that seemed to make things worse.
It seemed as if it were time for Rev. Van Dyke to take things into his own hands, as he had done all of his life. He began research in a variety of relief modalities. Rev. Van Dyke had experimented with cannabis as a youth, and remembered how really good his head felt.( He did not use cannabis, by choice for 15yrs.) He then began to focus on cannabis as an option. His quest for knowledge led him to a five year research project. Rev. Van Dyke took special recognition and measures to not walk down the status quo road, instead, he invested everything he had ever earned into the medicine, and more importantly the people! Without money clouding his research motives and actions, he was able to learn amazing facts and information on just about anything anybody would ever want to know about cannabis as a medicine and a plant. He has unlocked the keys to understanding from a level of spirit and energy, combined with a firm understanding of plant horticulture, and a background, as a hobby, in the sciences.
These understandings have led him to an entire “GREEN” philosophy that he shares with the world! Nothing held back, Rev. Van Dyke is motivated to bring his unique perspective on cannabis, and how to fully potentiate all aspects of the processes involved, to the world. The ever changing cannabis industry has many, many sides, which will you choose?
Judy Mendoza – Moms to Moms – Lecturer
M-Squared…Moms to Moms
Helping Mother’s of Special Needs Children To Connect….
Msquared is an organization focused on helping mothers of special needs children to connect. Having a child with special needs can disintegrate even the most connected families. Reducing anxiety for the children and the parents is crucial. One component of MSquared’s mission is to tell my story about what has helped my family. One thing has been to turn to an alternative form of treatment for my son, medical marijuana. It is my desire to share my story with other parents in similar situations and to share resources so that with a Dr.’s recommendation these parents have access to medical cannabis that is safe, especially when using edibles with children with severe food allergies.
A little bit about me and my family…
Before I had children I worked in Human Resources for 13 years at two fortune 500 companies. It was very rewarding, but I always knew that I wanted to be a mother. www.msquaredsite.org
Brief History of Cannabis
Since cannabis is the only plant on the planet that yields both a drug and a useful fiber its no surprise that it has been used for thousands of years. A Chinese treatise on pharmacology attributed to the Emperor Shen Nung and alleged to date from 2737 B.C. contains probably the earliest reference to cannabis and its potential as a medicine. Other early references to cannabis come from India in the Atharva Vedafrom the second millennium BC and from tablets from the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, an Assyrian King, who live around 650 BC
The ancient Greeks used alcohol rather than cannabis as a recreational drug but they traded with cannabis eating and inhaling peoples. Hence some of the references in Homer may be to cannabis- including Homer’s reference to the drug which Helen brought to Troy from Egyptian Thebes. Certainly Herodotus was referring to cannabis when he wrote in 5 BC that the Scythians cultivated a plant that grew like flax but grew thicker and taller; this hemp they deposited upon red-hot stones in a close rooms producing a vapor. Herodotus noted, “that no Grecian vapour-bath can surpass. The Scythians, transported by the vapor, shout aloud”.
Herodotus also described people living on islands who “meet together in companies” throw cannabis on a fire, then “sit around in a circle; and by inhaling the fruit that has been thrown on, they become intoxicated by the odour, just as the Greeks do by wine; and more fruit is thrown on, the more intoxicated they become, until they rise up and dance and betake themselves to singing.” Other passages from Pliny, Marco Polo, Abu Mansur Muwaffaq and The Arabian Nights show that cannabis was cultivated both for its fibre and for its psychoactive properties throughout Asia and the Near East from the earliest known times.
The date on which cannabis was introduced to Europe is unknown; but it must have been very early. An urn containing cannabis leaves and seeds, unearthed near Berlin, is believed to date from 500 BC
Cloth made from hemp was common in central and southern Europe in the 13 century and remained popular with succeeding generations. Fine Italian linen was made from hemp as well as flax and in many cases the two were mixed in the same material. Nor were the Europeans ignorant of the recreational potential of cannabis; Francois Rabelais (1490-1553) gave a full account of what he called “the herb Pantagruelion”
The usage of cannabis also spread quite early to Africa, many years before Europeans moved into the country. The plant is smoked by Suto women in South Africa before giving birth, they also grind up the seeds with bread or mealie pap and give it children when they are being weaned. A report in 1916 noted that south African mine workers were encouraged to smoke because “after a smoke the native work hard and show very little fatigue”. The usual mine practice was to allow three smokes resembling coffee brakes a day. Further north the lives of some tribes in the Congo centre on Cannabis, which is cultivated, smoked regularly and venerated. Whenever the tribe travels it takes the Riamba (a huge calabash pipe more than a yard in diameter) with it. Any man committing a misdeed is condemned to smoke until he passes out.
Cannabis occupies fourth place in worldwide popularity among the mind-affecting drugs – preceded only by caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. As in the cases of caffeine, nicotine and alcohol, attempt have been made to suppress the trade in cannabis and to eradicate its use. Emir Soudom Sheikhouni of Joneima in Arabia is said to have ordered in 1378 that all cannabis plants in his territory be destroyed and that anyone caught eating cannabis have their teeth pulled out. But 15 years after the Emir’s decree the use of cannabis had increased. No successful effort to suppress cannabis has ever existed and in 1969 the UN estimated that there were between 200,000,000 and 250,000,000 cannabis users in the world.
This timeline was originally written by Rob Christopher for the launch of UKCIA in 1995. It has been continued since then by Derek of UKCIA
Cannabis sativa appears to have originated in Central Asia and was probably first cultivated for its fibre. It has been grown in China for at least 4500 years. It is thought to have reached Europe by 1500 BC.
|2700 BC||First written record of cannabis use, in the pharmacopoeia of Shen Nung, one of the fathers of Chinese medicine.|
|550 BC||The Persian prophet Zoroaster gives hemp first place in the sacred text, the Zend-Avesta, which lists over 10,000 medicinal plants.|
|450 BC||The Greek historian Herodotus describes the Scythians of central Asia throwing hemp onto heated stones under canvas: ‘as it burns, it smokes like incense and the smell of it makes them drunk’.|
|100 BC||Chinese make paper from cannabis and mulberry.|
|AD 45||St Mark establishes the Ethiopian Coptic Church. The Copts claim that marijuana as a sacrament has a lineage descending from the Jewish sect, the Essenes, who are considered to be responsible for the Dead Sea Scrolls.|
|70||Roman Emperor Nero’s surgeon, Dioscorides praises Cannabis for making “the stoutest cords” and for it’s medical properties.|
|400||Cannabis cultivated for the first time in England at Old Buckeham Mare.|
|500||First botanical drawing of Cannabis appears in ‘Constantinopolitanus’.|
|600||Germans, Franks, Vikings, etc. make paper from Cannabis.|
|800||Mohammed allows Cannabis, but forbids alcohol use.|
|1000||The English word ‘Hempe’ first listed in a dictionary. Moslems produce hashish for medical and social use.|
|1150||Moslems use Cannabis to start Europe’s first paper mill. Most paper is made from Cannabis for next 850 years.|
|1484||Pope Innocent VIII singles out cannabis as an unholy sacrament of the Satanic mass.|
|1494||Hemp paper making starts in England.|
|1545||Spanish bring Cannabis cultivation to Chile.|
|1554||Spanish bring Cannabis cultivation to Peru.|
|1563||Queen Elizabeth I decrees that land owners with 60 acres or more must grow Cannabis else face a £5 fine.|
|1564||King Philip of Spain follows lead of Queen Elizabeth and orders Cannabis to be grown throughout his Empire from modern-day Argentina to Oregon.|
|1606||British take Cannabis to Canada to be cultivated mainly for maritime uses.|
|1611||British start cultivating Cannabis in Virginia.|
|1619||Virginia colony makes Cannabis Cultivation Mandatory, followed by most other colonies. Europe pays Hemp bounties.|
|1631||Cannabis used for bartering throughout American Colonies.|
|1632||Pilgrims bring Cannabis to New England.|
|1753||Cannabis Sativa classified by Linneaus.|
|1776||Declaration of Independence drafted on Cannabis paper.|
|1783||Cannabis Indica classified by Lamarck.|
|1791||President Washington sets duties on Cannabis to encourage domestic industry. Jefferson calls Cannabis “a necessity” and urges farmers to grow Cannabis instead of tobacco.|
|1807||Napoleon signs the Treaty of Tilset with Czar Alexander of Russia which cuts off all legal Russian trade with Britain. Britain blackmails and press gangs American sailors into illegally trading in Russian Hemp.|
|1808||Napoleon wants to place French Troops at Russian ports to ensure the Treaty of Tilset is complied with. The Czar refuses and turns a blind eye to Britain’s illegal trade in Cannabis.|
|1812||19th June America declares war on Britain. 24th June Napoleon invades Russia aiming to put an end to Britain’s main supply of Cannabis. By the end of the year the Russian winter and army had destroyed most of Napolean’s invading force.|
|1835||The Club de Hashichines, whose bohemian membership included the poet Baudelaire, is founded.|
|1839||Homeopathy journal American Provers’ Union publishes first of many reports on the effects of Cannabis.|
|1841||Dr. W.B. O’Shaunghnessy of Scotland works in India then introduces Cannabis to Western medicine. In the following 50 years hundreds of medical papers are written on the medical benefits of Cannabis.|
|1845||Psychologist and ‘inventor’ of modern psychopharmacology and psychotimimetic drug treatment, Jacques-Joseph Moreau de Tours documents physical and mental benefits of Cannabis.|
|1857||‘The Hasheesh Eater’ by Fitz Hugh Ludlow is published. Smith Brothers of Edinburgh start to market a highly active extract of Cannabis Indica used as a basis for innumerable tinctures.|
|1860||First Governmental commission study of Cannabis and health conducted by Ohio State Medical society.|
|1870||Cannabis is listed in the US Pharmacopoeia as a medicine for various ailments.|
|1876||Hashish served at American Centennial Exposition.|
|1890||Queen Victoria’s personal physician, Sir Russell Reynolds, prescribes Cannabis for menstrual cramps. He claims in the first issue of The Lancet, that Cannabis “When pure and administered carefully, is one of the of the most valuable medicines we possess”|
|1895||The Indian Hemp Drug Commission concludes that cannabis has some medical uses, no addictive properties and a number of positive emotional and social benefits. First known use of the word ‘marijuana’ for smoking, by Pancho Villa’s supporters in Sonora Mexico. The song “La Curaracha” tells the story of one of Villa’s men looking for his stash of “marijuana por fumar”|
|1910||African-American ‘reefer’ use reported in jazz clubs of New Orleans, said to be influencing white people. Mexican’s reported to be smoking Cannabis in Texas. Newspaper tycoon Randolph Hearst has 800,000 acres of prime Mexican Timberland seized from him by Villa and his men. Could this be the reason why his newspapers subsequently ran many stories portraying Negroes and Mexicans as frenzied beasts under the influence of ‘Marijuana’.|
|1911||Hindus reported to be using ‘Gunjah’ in San Francisco. South Africa starts to outlaw Cannabis.|
|1912||The possibility of putting controls on the use of Cannabis is raised at the first International Opium Conference.|
|1915||California outlaws Cannabis.|
|1916||Recognising that timber supplies are finite, USDA Bulletin 404 calls for new program of expansion of Cannabis to replace uses of timber by industry.|
|1919||Texas outlaws Cannabis.|
|1923||The South African delegate to the League of Nations claims mine workers are not as productive after using ‘dagga’ (Cannabis) and calls for international controls. Britain insists on further research before any controls are imposed.|
|1924||At the second International Opiates Conference the Egyptian delegate claims that serious problems are associated with Hashish use and calls for immediate international controls. A Sub-Committee is formed and listens to the Egyptian and Turkish delegations while Britain abstains. The conference declares Cannabis a Narcotic and recommends strict international control.|
|1925||The ‘Panama Canal Zone Report’ conducted due to the level of Cannabis use by soldiers in the area concludes that there is no evidence that Cannabis use is habit-forming or deleterious. The report recommends that no action be taken to prevent the use or sale of Cannabis.|
|1928||September 28th. The Dangerous Drugs Act 1925 becomes law and Cannabis is made illegal in Britain.|
|1930||Louis Armstrong is arrested in Los Angeles for possession of cannabis.|
|1931||The Federal Bureau of Narcotics is formed with Anslinger appointed as its head.|
|1937||Following action by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and a campaign by newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, a prohibitive tax is put on hemp in the USA, effectively destroying the industry. Anslinger testifies to congress that ‘Marijuana’ is the most violence causing drug known to Man. The objections by the American Medical Association (The AMA only realised that ‘Marijuana’ was in fact Cannabis 2 days before the start of hearing) and the National Oil Seed Institute are rejected.|
|1938||The February edition of US magazine Popular Mechanics (written before the Marijuana Transfer Tax was passed) declares ‘Hemp – the New Billion Dollar Crop.’|
|1941||Cannabis dropped from the American Pharmacopoeia. Popular Mechanics Magazine reveal details of Henry Ford’s plastic car made using Cannabis and fuelled from Cannabis. Henry Ford continued to illegally grow Cannabis for some years after the Federal ban, hoping to become independent of the petroleum industry.|
|1943||Both the US and German governments urge their patriotic farmers to grow hemp for the war effort. The US shows farmers a short film – ‘Hemp for Victory’ which the government later pretends never existed. The editor of ‘Military Journal’ states that although some military personnel smoke Cannabis he does not view this as a problem.|
|1944||New York Mayor LaGuardia’s Marijuana commission reports that Cannabis causes no violence at all and cites other positive results. Anslinger responds by denouncing LaGuardia and threatens doctors with prison sentences if they dare carry out independent research on Cannabis.|
|1945||Newsweek reports that over 100,000 Americans use Cannabis.|
|1948||Anslinger now declares that using Cannabis causes the user to become peaceful and pacifistic. He also claims that the Communists would use Cannabis to weaken the American’s will to fight.|
|1951||UN bulletin of Narcotic Drugs estimates 200 million Cannabis users worldwide.|
|1952||First UK Cannabis bust at the Number 11 Club, Soho.|
|1961||Anslinger heads US delegation at UN Drugs Convention. New international restrictions are placed on Cannabis aiming to eliminate its use within 25 years.|
|1962||Anslinger is sacked by President Kennedy. Kennedy may well have smoked cannabis in the White House.|
|1964||The first head shop is opened by the Thelin brothers in the United States.|
|1966||The folk singer Donovan becomes the first celebrity hippy to fall foul of the law.|
|1967||In July over 3,000 people hold a mass ‘smoke-in’ in Hyde Park in London. The same month, The Times carries a pro-legalisation advertisement which declares that “the laws against Marijuana are immoral in principle and unworkable in Practice. The signatories include David Dimbleby, Bernard Levin, and the Beatles.|
|1967||The most famous bust of all, on the home of Rolling Stone, Keith Richards, uncovered marijuana. Richards and Mick Jagger were sentenced to prison for respectively three months and one year. The sentences prompted an outcry that culminated in Lord Rees Mogg’s famous Times editorial ‘Who brakes a butterfly on a wheel?’ The convictions were quashed on appeal.|
|1967||In New York, on Valentines Day, Abbie Hoffman and the Yippies mail out 3000 joints to addresses chosen at random from the phonebook. They offer these people the chance to discover what all the fuss is about, but remind them that they are now criminals for possessing cannabis. The mail out was secretly funded by Jimi Hendrix, and attracts huge publicity.|
|1968||A Home Office select committee, chaired by Baroness Wootton, looks at the ‘cannabis question’. Its report concluded that cannabis was no more harmful than tobacco or alcohol, and recommended that the penalties for all marijuana offences be reduced. Campaign against Cannabis use by US Troops in Vietnam – Soldiers switch to heroin.|
|1969||Incoming Labour minister Jim Callaghan rejects the Wootton recommendations and introduces a new Misuse of Drugs Act, which prescribes a maximum five years’ imprisonment for possession. The Act remains in force to this day.|
|1970||Canadian Le Dain report claims that the debate on the non-medical use of Cannabis “has all too often been based on hearsay, myth and ill-informed opinion about the effects of the drug.” Marijuana Transfer Tax’ declared unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.|
|1971||Misuse of Drugs Act lists Cannabis as a Class B drug and bans its medical use despite the recommendation of the Wootton Report that “Preparations of Cannabis and it’s derivatives should continue to be available on prescription for purposes of medical treatment and research”. President Nixon declares drugs “America’s public enemy No. 1”.|
|1972||The White House passes a $1 billion anti-drug bill and Nixon again declares drugs America’s public enemy No. 1″. The US Government Shafer report voices concern at the level of spending used to stop illicit drug use. From 1969-73 the level of spending rose over 1000 percent.|
|1973||President Nixon declares “We have turned the corner on drug addiction in America’. Oregon becomes the first state to take steps towards legalisation.|
|1975||Hundreds of Doctors call on US Government to instigate further research on Cannabis. Supreme Court of Alaska declares that ‘right of privacy’ protects Cannabis possession in the home. Limit for public possession is set at one ounce.|
|1976||Ford Administration bans government funding of medical research on Cannabis. Pharmaceutical companies allowed to carry out research on synthetic, manmade Cannabis analogues. Holland adopts policy of tolerance to Cannabis users. Robert Randal becomes first American to receive Cannabis from Federal supplies under a Investigational New Drug (IND) program. Ford’s chief advisor on drugs, Robert Dupont declares that Cannabis is less harmful than alcohol or tobaeeo and urges for it’s decriminalisation. Disturbances erupt at the end of the Notting Hill carnival. BBC News reports: ‘Scores of young black men roamed the streets late into the night, openly smoking marijuana joints and listening to the non-stop pounding of reggae music’.|
|1978||New Mexico becomes first US state to make Cannabis available for medical use.|
|1980||Paul McCartney spends ten days in prison in Japan for possession of cannabis.|
|1983||UK convictions for cannabis possession exceed 20,000, having risen from just under 15,000 in 1980. US government instructs American Universities and researchers to destroy all 1966-76 Cannabis research work.|
|1988||In Washington, DEA Judge Francis Young concludes at the end of a lengthy legal process that “Marijuana in its natural form is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man”. He recommends that medical use of marijuana should be allowed, for certain life- or sense-threatening illnesses. The DEA administrator rejects the ruling. US Senate adds $2.6 Billion to federal anti-drug efforts.|
|1989||Outgoing president Reagan declares victory in War on Drugs as being a major achievement of his administration. Secretary of State James Baker reports that the global war on narcotics production “is clearly not being won.”|
|1990||The discovery of THC receptors in the human brain is reported in Nature.|
|1991||42,209 people are convicted of cannabis offences in the UK. 19,583 escape with cautions.|
|1993||Hempcore become the first British company to obtain a license to grow Cannabis as the Home Office lift restrictions on industrial hemp cultivation.|
|1994||Home Secretary Michael Howard increases maximum fines for possession from £500 to £2,500. Germany becomes the first European country apart from Holland to decriminalise possession of ‘small quantities of cannabis for occasional use’. The Liberal-Democrat conference votes for a Royal Commission, yet the tabloid press report that they support legalisation! Key rings with leaves taken from Hempcore’s first Harvest are illegally sold in such publications as ‘Viz’. The Home Office are aware of the situation but do not prosecute Hempcore who could have been facing 15 years and an unlimited fine. Association of Cannabis Therapeutics talks to Department Of Health about possibility of Legalising Cannabis for Medical use.|
|1995||Channel 4 dedicate 8 hours of programming to Cannabis on Pot Night. The BBC respond with blatant anti-cannabis propaganda on Panorama. 10 millionth cannabis arrest in the US in July. Labour shadow minister Clare Short says the subject of decriminalisation should be discussed. She is immediately denounced by other leading Labour Politicians.|
|1995||UKCIA website is launched|
|The newspaper The Independent on Sunday launched a “Decriminalise cannabis” campaign. They, like us, believed that a change would come with the newly elected Labour government but they and we were wrong, but they did organise a big demonstration in London in March of 1998 before dropping the campaign. These large demonstrations became an annual event fpr spme time thereafter, although they were no longer organised by the newspaper.|
|After four long years of attempted repression of cannabis under the first Labour Administration of Tony Blair, the climate of opinion began to change. In September of 2000, at the Tory party conference, the then shadow Home Secretary, Anne Widdecombe to make her keynote speech which was to be in the tradition of firm support for the issue of law and order. She announced that the next Conservative government would have a “crack down” on cannabis and she even proposed on the spot fines for simple small scale possession. The media and the police tore the speech apart as unworkable and even undesirable. Several Tory MP’s admitted past use, the crack down on cannabis was over.|
|2001||At the start of the new administration in June 2001 the police in Lambeth, South London announced that they would no longer give anyone found in possession of cannabis a criminal record and the issue of legalisation became a major issue in the campaign for the leadership of the Conservative party. We began to hope change was close|
|2001||October: The government sets up a Select Committee to look at drugs policy. When giving evidence the Home Secretary (David Blunkett) announces his intention to move cannabis from class B to class C, making possession a non-arrestable offence.|
|2004||January: The long awaited reclassification finally happened, but the law relating to Class C drugs was changed so as to make most of the changes meaningless. The government spends 1 million pounds on an advertising campaign to tell people nothing had changed and that Cannabis is still illegal.|
Reefer madness V2 launched by the mental health charities RETHINK and SANE, drawing attention to research which claimed to show a link between cannabis use and serious mental illness. The campaign was used as a platform to oppose the reclassification to class C and over the next four years a series of alarmist and totally inaccurate newspaper reports carried scare stories of a dangerous new version of cannabis – “skunk” – said to be 30 or more times stronger than cannabis used to be.
The ACMD examines the issue and recommends no change to the classification of cannabis and the Home Secretary Charles Clarke agrees to keep it where it is, but orders a total review of the drugs classifications. Clarke is replaced shortly after and his review is scrapped.
|2007||Tony Blair finally stands down to widespread relief, but is replaced by Gordon Brown who announces his intention to move cannabis to class B again. The issue is returned to the ACMD for their advice upon which the decision would normally have been based.|
ACMD reports that cannabis should remain class C. Research carried out for the Home Office but never made public is leaked by the Guardian and shows incidence of psychosis has actually dropped during the time cannabis use increased. Gordon Brown ignores the ACMD advice and announces cannabis will be returned to class B.
UKCIA loses it’s webhosting and moves to a new server. Newsblog starts.
|2009||Cannabis is returned to class B of the misuse of drugs act in January. The chair of the advosory body the ACMD, Prof Nutt, is forced to resign for criticising the governments descision to move cannabis back to class B.|
Most of the timeline was compiled by Rob Christopher of CHIC using the following sources:
Chris Conrad, HEMP, Lifeline to the Future (ISBN 0-963975-1-2)
Ernest Abel, Marijuana, The First 12,000 years (Plenum Press, New York 1980)
Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears No Clothes (ISBN # 1-878125-00-1)
Peter Stratford, Psychedelics Encyclopaedia (ISBN 0-9114171-51-8)
Some more came from the web site that accompanied Channel 4’s Pot Night.
UKCIA checked and corrected the above and added more using:
Terrence McKenna, Food Of The Gods
Abbie Hoffman, Soon To Be A Major Motion Picture
Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
Of all the plants men have ever grown, none has been praised and denounced as often as marijuana (Cannabis sativa). Throughout the ages, marijuana has been extolled as one of man’s greatest benefactors – and cursed as one of his greatest scourges. Marijuana is undoubtedly a herb that has been many things to many people. Armies and navies have used it to make war, men and women to make love. Hunters and fishermen have snared the most ferocious creatures, from the tiger to the shark, in its herculean weave. Fashion designers have dresses the most elegant women in its supple knit. Hangmen have snapped the necks of thieves and murderers with its fiber. Obstetricians have eases the pain of childbirth with its leaves. Farmers have crushed its seeds and used the oil within to light their lamps. Mourners have thrown its seeds into blazing fires and have had their sorrow transformed into blissful ecstasy by the fumes that filled the air.
Marijuana has been known by many names: hemp, hashish, dagga, bhang, loco weed, grass – the list is endless. Formally christened Cannabis sativa in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, marijuana is one of nature’s hardiest specimens. It needs little care to thrive. One need not talk to it, sing to it, or play tranquil Brahms lullabies to coax it to grow. It is as vigorous as a weed. It is ubiquitous. It flourishes under nearly every possible climatic condition.
It sprouts from the earth not meekly, not cautiously in suspense of where it is and what it may find, but defiantly, arrogantly, confident that whatever the conditions it has the stamina to survive.
It is not a magnanimous herb. Plants unfortunate enough to fall in the shade of its serrated leaflets will find that marijuana does not share its sunlight. It wants it all. Marijuana also does not like to share its territory. It encroaches on its neighbors. Its roots gobble up all the nutrients in the soil, and like a vampire it sucks the life blood from the earth.
Marijuana is a very rapidly growing plant, attaining a usual height of three to twenty feet at maturity. Five hundred years ago, the French author Rabelius wrote that it was “sown at the first coming of the swallows and pulled out of the ground when the cicadies began to get hoarse.”
Marijuana is dioecious, which means that there are sexually distinct male and female plants. At one time, farmers believed that only the females produced the intoxicating hashish resin. Now it is known that both sexes produce this gummy secretion. The male, however, manufactures less resin and produces flowers earlier than the female. To prevent a pollinating marriage, cannabis growers destroy these males as soon as they are detected. Had he known of this age-old custom, Freud might have written an insightful treatise on the symbolism of this bit of agricultural castration.
The intoxicating resin is secreted by glandular hairs located around the flowers and to a certain extent in the lower portions of the plant. The actual substance in the resin responsible for the plant’s inebriating effects is a chemical called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In very hot climates, as in India and North Africa, so much resin is produced that the plant appears to be covered with a sticky dew even as it bakes under the parching rays of the hot sun. This resin serves as a protective shield preventing loss of water from the plant to the dry air. And of course, the more resin, the more THC likely to be present.
Cannabis seeds are brownish and rather hard. When pressed, they yield a yellowish-green oil once used to make soap, lamp oil, paint and varnish. Bird fanciers claim that hemp seed stimulates birds to develop superior plumage. While the seeds contain far less THC than the leaves or flowers, the chemical is still present. Although there are no reports of any birds flying into trees or houses after feasting on a meal of cannabis seeds, it was by burning these seeds and inhaling the fumes given off that some ancient societies first experienced cannabis’s intoxicating powers.
The stem of the plant is square and hollow and covered with strong fibers. The first step in removing these fibers is called retting and involves soaking the stems so that partial decomposition occurs. This disengages the nonfibrous tissue. The stem is then bent so that the fibers can separate. Once separated, they can be stripped away and spun into thread or twisted into cordage and rope.
Cannabis will grow under most conditions that will support life. It is inherently indestructible. Long after other species of plants have disappeared because of drought, infestation, or climatic changes, cannabis will still exist. Cannabis is one of nature’s best examples of survival of the fittest.
Depending on the conditions under which it grows, cannabis will either produce more resin or more fiber. When raised in hot, dry climates, resin is produced in great quantities and fiber quality is poor. In countries with mild, humid weather, less resin is produced and the fiber is stronger and more durable.
It is because of these climate-related characteristics that most Europeans knew very little of the intoxicating properties of the cannabis plant until the nineteenth century when hashish was imported from India and the Arab countries. Prior to this time, cannabis was merely a valuable source of fiber and seed oil to most Europeans, nothing more.
In India, Persia, and the Arab countries, the main value of the plant resided in its inebriating resin. People in these countries were also among the first to use cannabis fiber to make nets and ropes. But the sticky covering on the plant was what they valued most, especially where alcohol was proscribed by religious doctrine.
Depending on his personal interests, the cannabis farmer could increase his yield of fiber or resin by various measures. To produce a plant with a better fiber, he grew his plants very close to one another. This reduced the amount of sunlight falling on individual plants and promoted the growth of long stems and fibers. To obtain more resin, he sowed his seeds further apart. This gave each plant more sunlight and forced the plant to secrete more resin in order to keep itself from drying out. But regardless of whether he was after the fiber or the resin, male plants were always destroyed before they could court the females, since the production of seeds by the female invariably reduced the quality of fiber and resin.
Cannabis was harvested by various methods. If the fiber were primarily of interest, the stems would be cut fairly close to the ground with a specially designed sickle with the blade set at right angles to the handle.
Harvesting the resin was a different matter. People who grew cannabis for personal pleasure simply snipped some leaves whenever the desire moved them. In countries such as Nepal where cannabis became part of the agricultural economy, the resin was gathered more systematically but in a less sanitary fashion: after the female plants were ripe with their sticky coverings, workers were hired to run naked through the cannabis fields. As they brushed against the plants, a certain amount of resin would adhere to their bodies. At the end of each run they would scrape the sticky resin from their bodies and start again. Since cannabis resin and water do not mix very well, the perspiration from their sweating bodies were shaped into bricks and readied for market. Buyers were rarely finicky about anything other than how pleasurable was the intoxication they felt when they consumed their purchase.