BIBLIOGRAPHY & LINKS

There are many resources available on the subject of hemp.  Those listed below have been used in the construction of this web site.  They contain links to many other valuable sources of information.  Enjoy your reading …

Links
Abel EJ, Marijuana Farmers the First Twelve Thousand Years at The American Hemp Industries Association at http://thehia.org/index.html – an organisation pushing for growth in industrial hemp industries.

Campaign to Legalize Cannabis International Association International – the experts on hemp and cannabis at  This site includes an extensive and comprehensive list of suppliers of hemp products.

Hemphasis – a Canadian pro-hemp organisation can be found on the Industrial Hemp Webring at http://www.hemphasis.com/

and http://www.cannabis.com/hemp

The non-food Agro-Industrial Research Information Dissemination Network states the importance of hemp and can be found via http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/index.html.

Bibliography
Carson R, 1962, Silent Spring

CLCIA campaign leaflets available on request from The Legalise Cannabis Alliance, POo Box 198, Norwich, Norfolk, NR2 2DE.

Columbia History of the World, Harper and Row, 1981.

Conrad C, Hemp – Lifeline to the Future

Crossby A, 1965, America, Russia, Hemp and Napoleon, State University Press

d’Oudney K and d’oudney J, 1997, Cannabis : The facts, Human Rights and the Law, FCDA

d’Oudney K, 1998, Green Solutions

Frazier J 1972, The Marijuana Farmers, Solar Age

The Herald, 28th May 1994.

Herer J, 1993, The Emperor Wears no Clothes, the Authoritative Record of the Cannabis Plant & How Hemp can still Save the World, Green Planet Company

Help reintroduce HEMP

HELP RE-EDUCATE
Tell you friends and family about the potential of hemp as a sustainable plant, pass on the address of this web site and teach yourself the subject (see links)
Print off pages of this web site and pass amongst friends
Ask your local library to invest in your favourite books and articles
Set up a simple street campaign to help re-educate the public – generate some simple to the point leaflets.
The CLCIA may be willing to provide you with some leaflets for this purpose

WRITE TO YOUR MP
It would be better to write about single specific issues rather than asking ‘why on earth is hemp illegal?’ You might for example like to write expressing your concerns about global warming and the risks associated with nuclear energy. You could suggest that hemp biomass is a much safer and more economical means of producing electricity and recommend that your MP reads a copy of the FCDA report by d’Oudney and d’Oudney (1997)

START A PETITION
DEMAND the re-legalization of non-psychoactive hemp, outlining the main reasons why.

— USE YOUR CONSUMER INFLUENCE
Purchase hemp products where possible. An increasing demand will stimulate an increase in supply. (The CLCIA have a long list of suppliers). To similar effect, try to boycott products produced by polluting industries.

ENTREPRENEURS
Consider obtaining a licence for growing hemp from the Home Office. There is much potential for business – there is a huge range of products you could consider producing (eco-industry).

Cannabis Conspiracy?

Debunking the Hemp Conspiracy Theory

Pot isn’t illegal because the paper industry is afraid of competing with hemp — it’s because of racism and the culture wars.

Scratch a pothead and ask them why marijuana is outlawed, and there’s a good chance you’ll get some version of the “hemp conspiracy” theory. Federal pot prohibition, the story goes, resulted from a plot by the Hearst and DuPont business empires to squelch hemp as a possible competitor to wood-pulp paper and nylon. These allegations can be found anywhere from Wikipedia entries on William Randolph Hearst and the DuPont Company to comments on pot-related articles published here on AlterNet. And these allegations are virtually unchallenged; many people fervently believe in the hemp conspiracy, even though the evidence to back it up vaporizes under even minimal scrutiny.

You could make a stronger case for Lee Harvey Oswald as the lone assassin of John F. Kennedy; Oswald at least left a not-quite-smoking gun at the scene.

Pot activist Jack Herer’s book The Emperor Wears No Clothes is the prime source for the hemp-conspiracy theory. It alleges that in the mid-1930s, “when the new mechanical hemp fiber stripping machines to conserve hemp’s high-cellulose pulp finally became state of the art, available and affordable,” Hearst, with enormous holdings in timber acreage and investments in paper manufacturing, “stood to lose billions of dollars and perhaps go bankrupt.” Meanwhile, DuPont in 1937 had just patented nylon and “a new sulfate/sulfite process for making paper from wood pulp” — so “if hemp had not been made illegal, 80 percent of DuPont’s business would never have materialized.”

Herer, a somewhat cantankerous former marijuana-pipe salesman, deserves a lot of credit for his cannabis activism. He was a dedicated grass-roots agitator for pot legalization during the late 1980s, perhaps the most herb-hostile time in recent history. Despite a substantial stroke in 2001, he soldiers on; he’s currently campaigning to get a cannabis-legalization initiative on the ballot in Santa Barbara, California. The Emperor — an omnivorous conglomeration of newspaper clippings and historical documents about hemp and marijuana, held together by Herer’s cannabis evangelism and fiery screeds against prohibition — has been a bible for many pot activists. Unearthing a 1916 Department of Agriculture bulletin about hemp paper and a World War II short film that exhorted American farmers to grow “Hemp for Victory,” Herer more than anyone else revived the idea that the cannabis plant was useful for purposes besides getting high. Unfortunately, he’s completely wrong on this particular issue. The evidence for a “hemp conspiracy” just doesn’t stand up. It is far more likely that marijuana was outlawed because of racism and cultural warfare.

Wood-pulp paper sulphide production ……

Synthetic nylon ……

Fossil fuels …

Chemical production – fertilizers, pesticides ….

Clear cut logging ….

Hardly a sustainable base for industry!

Think back to when these industries began. Which of all crops served to threaten the chances of making mega-bucks? – it was hemp!

What do businesses attempt to do with competitors?- beat them (at the least) but preferably eradicate them.

‘Have we all been conned by money-motivated conspirators?’ ask the Campaign to Legalize Cannabis International Association (CLCIA)

There are too many coincidences to out rule the conspiracy theory. Jack Herer notes that hemp was outlawed around the same time as nylon, plastics from coal derivatives and the wood-paper pulp sulphide process were patented by DuPont. This was also around the time that the first machinery for mechanical hemp fibre stripping had been developed. Timber and paper industries would have lost out and, if hemp remained legal, ‘80% of Du Pont’s business would have never come to be; nor would the great majority of pollution’.

Similarly oil companies kept prices low and then increased them for big profits once hemp oil was outlawed. Hemp has also been written out of history – not many people know that it was the mainstay of human culture for centuries.

Although the British government and some American states are beginning to allow farmers to grow hemp under licence, there is still much resistance because of the powerful vested interests that be – notably:

Chemical Industry – providers of fertilizers and pesticides for the cotton industry
Plastics Industry
Timber Companies
Fuel Companies (oil and nuclear)

Eco Industry

Whilst there is still some doubt that global warming is occurring, the possibility of it has been recognized for over a century. Reports including those from the Office of Technology of Assessment from the 1970s onwards indicate that warming IS occurring. Temperature records (1850-2000) indicate that there has been a fluctuating, gradual rate of increase in both temperature and energy – hence the increased occurrence of ‘freak’ weather incidents such as hurricanes and floods. Climatologists agree that greenhouse gases are responsible for warming the atmosphere and that 66% of greenhouse gases are caused by burning fossil fuel, deforestation and fertilizers.

All though some ‘experts’ (most notably those with affiliation to greenhouse gas producing industries) remain sceptical over whether global warming is occurring or not, we should at least err on the side of caution. Freak weather incidents, and rising sea levels are likely to have significant negative effects upon human civilizations. The UK government is committed to increased reliance upon nuclear energy, which creates the additional risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste and radioactive emissions. Alternatives to the burning of fossil fuels, nuclear waste, deforestation and nitrate chemical fertilizers need to be developed. Hemp could have a vital role to play in the development of friendly alternatives.

Energy production
A report published by the FCDA of Europe outlines the Cannabis Biomass Energy Equation (CBEE), outlining a convincing case that hemp plants can be used to produce fuel energy CHEAPER per BtU than fossil fuels and uranium – WITHOUT PRODUCING GREENHO– USE GASES! Hemp plants have the highest known quantities of cellulose for annuals – with at least 4x (some suggest even 50-100x) the biomass potential of its closest rivals (cornstalks, sugarcane, kernaf and trees) (Omni, 1983). Biomass production still produces greenhouse gases, although the idea is that the excess of carbon dioxide will be used up by growing hemp plants – they are effective absorbers and thrive at high levels – Unlike fossil fuel energy which produces energy from plants which died millions of years ago.

On reading the report of the FCDA, Hon. Jonathon Porrit (ex-director of Friends of the Earth, currently on the Board of Forum for the Future) commented  ‘I DID enjoy reading it – the report should contribute much’. Three years later – authorities are still not taking the potential of this plant seriously. MAFF are currently engaging in supporting research into the biomass potential of poplar trees which they claim has the most scientific support for biomass energy production. H-E-M-P recommend use of the hemp plant if biomass energy production is to have any real impact in reducing carbon dioxide levels.

IT’S SO PRODUCTIVE! 1 acre of hemp = 1,000 gallons of methanol.

In fact, Henry Ford’s first car ran on hemp-methanol! – and at just a fraction of the cost of petroleum alternatives. Alternatives to coal, fuel oil, acetone, ethyl, tar pitch and creosote can be derived – from this one single plant!

As regards depletion of the ozone layer – hemp actually withstands UV radiation. It absorbs UV light, whilst resisting damage to itself and providing protection for everything else.

Risk-free, pollution-free energy. No acid rain, and a reduction in airborne pollution of up to 80% … There’s further potential for the same in industry.